“If the goal is to minimize unintended consequences, targeted sanctions are clearly ‘smarter’ than general trade sanctions. Indeed the primary motivation for adopting targeted sanctions has been the desire to avoid adverse humanitarian impacts. As the use of economic sanctions has increased in recent decades (fourteen cases of UN multilateral sanctions since 1990, more than fifty cases of U.S. and European Union sanctions during the same period), these measures have come under sharp criticism for their harmful social consequences.”