This chapter examines trends and themes that have developed over the past quarter century in the use of economic sanctions by the UN Security Council. It emphasizes targeted financial sanctions, arms embargoes, and commodity sanctions as the most consistently imposed and the most thoroughly refined measures in the Council’s repertoire. It focuses on the utility and dilemmas of these sanctions in controlling international terrorism, preventing or reversing nuclear proliferation, and dealing with the perpetration of mass violence and atrocities against civilians. Finally, the chapter analyzes the challenges the UN faces in continuing and extending these particular techniques for advancing peace and security.